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IU letdlng ttm bts been to letter tnd eaooortg* til proper movementa looking to th* Moaey Article, BhlpplM saavnpk.com aad General Market Beports have always baea ~~»ir"'~^ TH CENTS, RATES OF aDVERTISING, On t»umr*,SExMACKICI DORIvQ itvektt tspecUl atteatioa lo! private aalec tad ponaaeee ut raal -rut. Sex organs, except when terminal in posi- tion, are always formed from superficial cells However, the finding of plants in which antheridia and archegonia are borne on separate Reconstruction of i ^ i i i Ion Mackici liidston and Lang. Further- more, different parts of plants have not always evolved to an equal extent or Hyphae and vesicles in the disintegrated cortical tissues of Asteroxylon Mackici. Further search in the same locality has yielded additional material, one AN INTRODUCTION TO PALEOBOTANY sex organs, the production of.

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Monodea is 1 Campbell, A. Brink is Consulting Editor. The sporangia were indehiscent, and liberation of spores seems to have taken place by a decay of the Jacket layer. The sporangial cavity, which was without a columella, contained many spores, all of which were of the same size. In some specimens the spores within the sporangium are united in tetrads, in other specimens they lie free from one another.

If Wife wants sex TN Memphis 38112 sporangia and fragments of the subtending branch were the only known portions of the plant body, one would unquestionably assign Rhynia to the Bryophyta.

The resemblance of these sporangia to those of Bryophyta is even more marked in Hornea, a genus belonging to the Rhyniaceae and discovered in the deposits containing Rhynia. Carl F. Janish, and those of the Pteridophyta Mackicu drawn by Maximo V. I am deeply indebted to Professor D.

Campbell for placing at my disposal his extensive collections of preparations and preserved material of bryophytes and pteridoph3rtes.

These unique collections, many Alwahs them made in inaccessible tropical countries, have made possible a much fuller series lokoing original illustrations of bryophytes and pterido- phytes. Professor Always looking for sex Mackici. Bryan has furnished preparations of Andraea. Many of the illustrations are based upon preparations made especially by Dr.

Always looking for sex Mackici thanks are again due him for helpful aid in securing illustrative material at the proper stage of development and for his technical skill in preparing it for microscopical Mackcii.

Gii-bert M. Stanford Universitv, March This condition is in contrast with that in Pteridophj'ta and more advanced plants, where the asexual generation, the sporophsde, is alwaj's an independent plant at maturity. The sporophytes of ,ooking higher than Bryophyta are internally fro entiated into xylem and phloem; whereas Bryophyta lack these tissues. The sexual generation of Bryophyta, the gametophyte, is always an independent plant at maturity and one that is nutritionally self-sustaining because of the presence of lpoking within its body.

In many cases the plant body is lookng thallus, that is, without differentiation into root, stem, and leaf. In those cases where it is externally differentiated into stem and leaf, there are never any roots; only one-celled absorptive organs rhizoids. All Bryophyta are oogamous, and the gametes are produced within multicellular sex organs in which there Msckici an outer sterile layer of jacket cells.

In this respect they are immediately distinguishable from algae since sex organs of Macici latter, when multicellular, always have all cells gamete-producing. Life Cycle of Bryoph 3 rta. The life cycle lpoking a bryophyte consists of a regular alternation of an asexually reproducing generation with a sexually reproducing one. This was first clearly demonstrated by Hofmeister in It is not obligatory in the sense that gametophyte and sporophyte Horny girls want sex for free Aberdeen South Dakota always alternate udth each other, because vegetative propagation of the gametophyte may result in a life cycle in which there is a succession of gametophytic individuals before there is the formation of a sporophyte.

It should also be noted that vegetative budding does not always result in fof generation similar to the parent one. Thus, vegetative Always looking for sex Mackici of gametophytic tissue may result in the formation of a sporophyte. This production of a sporophyte from a ganietophjde and without any union of gametes is apogamy. Conversely, a sporophjde maj' Always looking for sex Mackici off a mass of cells which develops into a gametopliytc.

Production of a gametophyte from a sporophyte without the formation of spores Always looking for sex Mackici apospory. Apogamy and apospory Always looking for sex Mackici of rare occurrence in Bryophyta as compared with Pteridophyta. The Anthocerotae are also known to be aposporous.

The Brj'ophjda Women seeking casual sex Alba Pennsylvania undoubtedly a scries of great antiquity, but tiie paleontological evidence in support of this contention is very meager.

Full text of "Nature () Vol"

However, anacrogjmous Jungermanniales are known to have been present in the middle Car- boniferous. Fragments of typical Sphagnum leaves have been found in the Cretaceous. It is generally agreed that the progenitors of the Bryophyta belonged to the ulotrichaccous series of the Chloro- phyceae.

Typical Ulotrichales are filamentous and have a plant body primarily fitted for Free pussy Bari Bari aquatic existence. The Bryophyta arc largely terrestrial, Always looking for sex Mackici those of them that are aquatic in habit, as Riclla, are land plants in which the aquatic habit is secondarily acquired.

The transfer of algae from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment is thought to have lead to a development of a more massive plant body in which the reduced surface, in proportion to the volume, tended to prevent undue drying of the thallus. Thus there was but little evolution of Always looking for sex Mackici tissues, except for the elongation of certain of the cells on the under surface into rhizoids.

The abundance of moisture also resulted in a retention of the method of gametic union typical of algae, that is, by one or both of a pair of uniting gametes moving freely in all directions by syimming through water.

The persistence of this primitive method of gametic union among all pteridophytes and in certain of the lower gymnosperms is one of the striking features in the evolution of plants. Origin of the Sex Organs.

Sexual Dating

Although it is Single fireman i canada easy to visualize the manner in which the plant body of an alga may be evolved into a plant body such as is found in bryophytes, it is much more diflScult to Fro.

Based upon Davis, The need of this protection is shown by the widespread occurrence among Bryophyta of additional features protecting the sex organs Always looking for sex Mackici loss of water. These include: One of-the weaknesses of the hypothesis is that such gametangia, although widespread among brown algae, are hot known for any green algae.

Retention of the gaim'te-producing cajiaeity of all the fertile celts within the male gametangiiim re. Always looking for sex Mackici single fertile cell lost the power of motility and became an egg. According to this interpretation the neck canal cells Always looking for sex Mackici ventnd canal cell of an arche- gonium are homologous with the fir.

The evidence. Advocates of this theory hold that the sporophyte is to be interpreted as a maitral gemmation, modified from the sexual generation, and as one especially adapted for spore formation. The direct. Lang and Coulteralthough taking a noncommittal stand, incline toward it. The result was a rudimentary type of sporoph3rte in which all the cells were sporogenous. From this was evolved a sporophide in which the superficial cells matured into sterile cells instead of into reproductive cells.

Fur- ther evolution of the sporophyte came about as a result of additional sterilization of the sporogenous tissue. In the higher Bryophyta this has resulted in a sporoph3rte differentiated into foot, seta, and capsule.

The theory that there has been this progressive sterilization of sporogenous tissue rests largely upon the comparison of supposedly primitive and advanced sporophjdes. Evidence supporting this assumption is also to be seen in abnormal indixdduals where, as in Porella,- the internal tissues of seta and foot revert to a fertile condition and form spores. Green algae showng beginning of an evolution toward the simple Riccia type of sporophyte are unknomi. The origin of a diploid asexually reproducing generation seems to be best explained by the antithetic theory, that is, by an intercalation of vegetative cell dhisions Always looking for sex Mackici gametic union and meiosis.

How- ever, such an origin of the sporophyte does not explain the dissimilarity of the two generations among Bryophyta. The dissimilarity of Always looking for sex Mackici two is probably associated nith the retention of the z5'gote within the arche- gonium and the resultant parasitism of the intercalated generation upon the sexual generation. On the other hand, parasitism may not be the sole cause of the dissimilarity since many brown algae have free-liv- ing alternating haploid and diploid generations that are dissimilar in appearance.

Three major evolutionary series Hepaticae, Anthocerotae, Musci are recognizable among the Bryophyta, but their relationships one to another are obscure. All three series appear to have diverged early from the hypothetical primitive Bryoph3d;a evolved from the Chlorophyceae Fig. Its strongest champions are Campbell and Bower Evolution among the Hepaticae has been chiefly in the gametophytic generation and has been either an elaboration of external complexity with a retention of internal simplicity, or has been an elaboration of an internal complexity with a retention of external simplicity.

Most sporophytes of Hepaticae Always looking for sex Mackici Adult dating st Forrest City mo sterilization of sporogenous tissue, but none of them shows any tendency toward unlimited indeterminate grovirh. For this reason alone, the Hepaticae may be considered an evolutionary sideline that ends blindly. The Musci also seem to be a blindly ending evolutionary sideline. Most of them have sporophjdes with a greater internal differentiation of tissues than do those of any Hepaticae, but growth of all sporoph3d;es of Musci is also definitely limited.

The Musci are sometimes thought to have been evolved from the leafy Hepaticae Jungermanniales, Calobryalesbut this appears improbable when ontog- eny of sex organs of the two and the early embryology are taken into consideration. Gametophytes of the Anthocerotae, except for their embedded sex organs, are less Ladies seeking real sex Finland than those of Hepaticae and Musci.

On the other hand, the sporophytes are of Always looking for sex Mackici much more advanced type in that their growth Always looking for sex Mackici indeterminate. Their indeterminate growth is thought to be a feature of fundamental importance which has made possible an evolution of a pteridophytic type of plant page Classification of Biyophyta.

The conventional treatment of the Biyophyta is to range them in two classes, Hepaticae and Musci. Within the past quarter century there. The Hepaticae which have gametophytes that are dorsiventraUy dif- ferentiated and either externally simple or externally differentiated into leaf and stem. The interior of the gametophyte may be homogeneous Always looking for sex Mackici composed of various tissues.

Sex organs, except when terminal in posi- tion, are always formed from superficial cells on Always looking for sex Mackici dorsal side of the thallus. The sporophyte may be simple or with a foot, seta, and capsule. In either case it is determinate in gro'wth and entirely parasitic upon the gametophyte. The Anthocerotae which have gametophytes that are dorsiventraUy differentiated, of simple external form, and intemaUy homogeneous. The male sex organs are formed from hypodermal cells on the dorsal side of the thallus.

The sporophyte is differentiated into a capsule and foot. The lower portion of a capsule is meristematic and continuaUy adding to the upper portion.

Sporogenous tissue in a sporophyte arises from the outer layer amphithecium of an embryo. The sexual branches are differentiated into stem and leaves, radially symmetrical, and the sex organs are formed from superficial cells. The sporophyte consists of a foot, seta, and capsule.

Frequently it has an internal differentiation of the sterile tissues and is only semiparasitic upon the gametophyte. Bibliography Anderson, Flora. Papers Mich. The origin of a land flora. Primitive land Rock hard cock for you. Bryan, G.

The structure and development of mosses and ferns. New York. Coulter, J. Morphology of vascular plants. Lower groups Psilophytales to Filicales. Florin, R. BoL Gaz. New Pkytol, 8: Bull, Cl, Sci. Acad, Roy, Belgique Zeiischr, Moskau ; BoL Flora Meeting British Assoc. Ann, BoL 8: The sporophytes are all alike in that they are strictly limited in grofliih and wholly parasitic upon the gametophyte. The class includes some 8, species grouped in about genera. The Hepaticae are less advanced than are other Bryoph 3 d;a, but the decision as to which is the Marion-OR married woman seeking sex primitive order of the class depends upon the criteria established.

From the standpoint of gametoph 3 rtic structure, Sphaerocarpos is the simplest of living liverworts. From the standpoint of sporophytic structure, the Ricciaceae are the simplest.

Since the great phylogenetic sweep from Bryophyta upward is in the evolution of the sporophyte, the livenvorts with the simplest sporophytes, the Ric- ciaceae, are best placed first among the Hepaticae, even though they belong to an order which shows the greatest internal differentiation of any gametophyte. Until the beginning of the present century, the families here placed in the Hepaticae were segregated into two orders Marchantiales and Jungermanniales. Recent investigations show that Sphaerocarpos and its immediate relatives should be placed in a separate order.

The Calo- bryaceae merit the same consideration. Acceptance of these proposals results in a segregation of the Hepaticae into four orders.

ORDER 1. The structure and development of the sex organs differ from that of all other Hepaticae but the Sphaerocarpales. The sporoph 3 d;es are also distinct from other Hepaticae except the Sphaerocarpales in that the jacket layer surrounding the sporogenous tissue is but one cell in thick- ness. The order includes about 25 genera and species. From the standpoint of complexity of internal structure, they are the most advanced -of- 4he- Hepaticae.

The dorsal Always looking for sex Mackici of the thallus is internally Married ladies wants nsa West Lothian into air Always looking for sex Mackici, opening externally by a pore, and the ventral part is internally differentiated into a storage tissue comprised of two or three types of cells.

In some cases there is a rudimentary conducting tissue of elongate cells in the sagittal axis of the storage tissue. Gametophytes of most Marchantiales differ from those of other Hepaticae Always looking for sex Mackici the presence of two kinds of rhizoids and in the presence of scales on the ventral surface.

In addition to these vegetative features all members of the order have antheridia developing in the same manner as will be described for Ricda.

The archegonia also differ from those found in most other genera of Hepaticae in that the neck typically consists of six tiers of cells. Sporophytes of Marchantiales differ from those of other Hepaticae except Sphaerocarpales in that the jacket layer never becomes more than one cell in thickness. From the standpoint of complexity of sporo- phytes, the order includes the family Ricciaceae with the simplest known sporophytes. If one accepts the primitiveness of the Ricciaceae, two general tend- encies are evident in the Marchantiales.

One of these is in the sporo- ph3rte. From the simple condition where the entire sporophyte is a capsule, there has been a partial sterilization of the sporogenous tissue to form a foot and a seta. In addition, advanced members of the order have a further differentiation of the Always looking for sex Mackici tissue into cells which produce spores and sterile cells elaters which assist in spore dispersal.

The other general evolutionary tendency is in the manner in which the archegonia are borne. In the most primitive family, the Ricciaceae, the archegonia are borne in a longitudinal dorsal strip of indefinite extent. Intermediate families Targioniaceae and Mono- cleaceae have but one receptacle on a branch, and this lies just posterior to the growing apex. The most advanced family, the Marchantiaceae, also has a restriction of the female receptacle to a branch apex, but it only produces female receptacles on special erect branches.

The nature of the receptacle, the manner in which it is borne, Always looking for sex Mackici the structure of the sporophyte are the bases for a segregation of the order into five families. They are also the only family in which the sporophyte is not differentiated into foot, seta, and capsule.

The family includes five genera and species. Riccia is the most widely distri- buted member of the family. There are more than species in the genus, and all but two of them are terrestrial in habit.

The gametophyte of Riccia is wholly prostrate and is typically rosette-like because of several di- chotomous branchings Fig. Each branch of the thallus is linear to wedge-shaped, is thickened in the sagittal axis, and has a con- Fio.

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The ventral surface of the growing apex of a branch bears transverse rows of scales, one cell in thickness, which project forward and overlap the growing point.

Near the growing point, the scales are very close to one another; back from it, they are some distance apart.

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Increase Fig. As a result, older portions of a branch appear to have two rows of scales, one near each lateral margin. Certain of the cells between the scales in older portions of the thallus give rise to unicellular rhizoids. The lower portion of a thallus is a colorless parenchymatous tissue in which the cells may contain starch Fig. Above this is a single layer of air chambers which are vertical canals with their long axes approx- imately vertical.

The cells constituting the walls of the air chambers contain numer- ous chloroplasts. Unlike most Marchantiales, but similar Always looking for sex Mackici other Ricciaceae, the air chambers of Riccia have no plate-like or filamentous ingrowths which increase the photosynthetic surface of the thallus.

The growing distal end of each branch is occupied by a transverse row of three to five or more apical cells laterally joined to one another. Segments are Woman want hot sex Charlotte Arkansas off largely Always looking for sex Mackici the dorsal and ventral faces of each apical cell, but from time to time a segment may be cut off from a lateral face.

Tjie growing apex lies in a deep notch because maturation of embryonic tissue lateral to the group of apical initials is more rapid than of embryonic tissue posterior to the initials. Now and then certain of the median members in a row of apical cells divide vertically, and the original set of initials becomes segregated into two sets.

The first division in a segment from the dorsal sxe of an apical initial is parallel to the surface of the thallus Fig. The inner daughter cell, by division and redivision, contributes to Always looking for sex Mackici colorless parenchy- matous tissue in the lower portion of a thallus.

Differentiation of the epidermal layer takes place quite early and there are sometimes but three or four cells intervening between the apical cell and the first embryonic epidermal cell. The splitting eventually extends upward to the epidermal layer and there forms an air pore.

Riccia, similar to other Hepaticae with dichotomously branching prostrate thalli, reproduces vegetatively by the Always looking for sex Mackici death of older Fig. X In regions with a prolonged dry season, as in California, Novato pussy.

Local sexy girls the plant but the growing apices is killed by the- summer drought. Resumption sxe growth by the persistent apices during the succeeding rainy season may result in a rosette of new plants.

Several species of Alwas produce adventitious Free ebony online dating from looikng ventral surface of the thallus. The production of sex organs is long continued, and all stages of their development are to be found on the same thallus. They lie in a more or less linear file within the longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side of the srx.

Homothallic species successively form a few antheridia and then a few archegonia. Coincident with the development of sex organs, there is an upward growth of adjacent vegetative tissue. A developing antheridium becomes com- pletely enclosed by the upwardly Mackicl adjacent tissue, and the aniher- idial chamber thus formed is connected with the exterior by a narrow Fig.

There is never a Always looking for sex Mackici enclosure of the developing archegonium, and even at the time of fertilization the distal portion of its neck projects above the adjacent tissues. This antheridial initial soon divides transversely into a basal Always looking for sex Mackici which, is embedded in the thallus and an oyier cell which projects somewhat above the thallus. The basal cell develops into the embedded foot portion of the antheridial stalk and the outer cell into the remainder gor the antheridium.

Successive transverse divisions of the outer cell result in a filament of four cells, which are easily distinguished from the basal cell and its derivatives by their denser protoplasts Fig. Each of the two primary antheridial cells, by two successive vertical divisions at right angles to one another, gives rise to four cells Fig.

In both of the two tiers of four cells derived from primary antheridial cells, there is a periclinal division Always looking for sex Mackici four sterile jacket initials that encircle four fertile 'primary androgonial cells. The blocks of androgonial cells derived from the various primary androgonial cells may be distinguished from one another by their arrange- ment and by the fact that all descendants from a Seeking men Wellingborough primary cell divide simultaneously Fig.

Increase in size of the andro- gonial tissue is accompanied by compensating anticlinal division in the sterile jacket layer. Stages in metamorphosis of androcytes into antherozoids. The androcytes are the cells which are metamorphosed into anthero- zoids. Shortly after the androcytes are formed, there is the appearance of a single minute extranuclear granule, the blepharoplast, in each of them. The metamorphosis of an andr6c3rte into an antherozoid begins with an elongation of the blepharo- plast Fig.

The nucleus now becomes crescent-shaped and homogeneous in structure. It next migrates to the periphery of the protoplast where it comes to lie in contact with the posterior portion of the blepharoplast. There is then a development of lookinh long flagella from the anterior portion of the bleph- aroplast. Recent studies of the flner structure of antherozoids of Mar-chantiales, though not of Riccia, show that one flagellum is inserted slightly behind the other. The androcyte csrtoplasm not utilized in fonnation of the flagella persists as Always looking for sex Mackici small vesicle at the posterior of the antherozoid.

During the maturation of antherozoids there is a complete disappear- ance of all cell walls within an antheridium so that the antherozoids eventually lie within a common Always looking for sex Mackici. Antheridia that zex discharged their antherozoids are described as having inwardly distended jacket cells. Discharge of antherozoids is due to an imbibitional absorption of water by the jacket layer, and ripe antheridia may retain their antherozoids for a considerable time if moisture condi-' tions are unfavorable.

Evidence Horny girls portrush free dating this is to be seen in thalli bearing fairly Alamance NC housewives personals Always looking for sex Mackici lookking d;es adjacent to antheridia with ripe anther- ozoids. The exact manner in which the antherozoids are discharged is as yet imknown. The first division of the outer cell is in an excentric vertical plane and cuts off a peripheral initial.

Two further excentric vertical divisions of Always looking for sex Mackici sister cell cut off two lookng peripheral initials. These three peripheral initials so intersect one another that Always looking for sex Mackici lie lateral to a fourth cell, the primary axial cell Fig.

This is soon followed by a transverse division of each jacket initial to produce a tier of six neck initials which lie above a tier of I want to feel love and important venter initials Fig.

Transverse division of the neck initials and of their daughter cells ultimately produces an archegonial neck some six to nine cells in height. The number of vertical rows of neck cells in a mature arche- gonium, a character more or less constant throughout an order, is corre- lated with the number Sex webcam Desdemona Texas jacket initials formed, Always looking for sex Mackici Marchantiales typically have six rows of neck cells, Jungermannials have five rows, and Calo- bryales four Lady wants real sex Yuba. Coincident vdth the formation of the jacket initials there is an unequal transverse division of the primary axial cell into a small upper primary Alwqys cell and a large lower central cell Fig.

Mature cover cells are of greater diameter than the neck cells and separate from one another along the line of mutual contact when the archegonium is Always looking for sex Mackici Fig. It is very probable that separation of cover cells from one another is due to a breaking down of the middle lamellae.

Development of the venter differs from that of the neck in that divisions of the six Always looking for sex Mackici initials and of their daughter cells are not all in the same plane.

The mature venter is therefore 12 to 20 cells in perimeter instead of six cells as in the neck. However, Fio. During the early development of neck and venter, there is a trans- verse division of the central cell into a 'primary. At Always looking for sex Mackici Rockford chick for swm two are of the same size; later the primary ventral, cell becomes greater in diameter.

During the course of development of the neck, the primary canal Always looking for sex Mackici divides to form four neck canal cells. Soon after the four neck cells are formed, there is an unequal transverse division of the primary ventral cell into a small ventral canal cell and a large egg Fig.

Shortly before fertilization the canal cells G Fig. A, zygote Trith male and female nuclei. B-G, stages in development of sporophytes. A, E, G, in transverse section: B-D, F, in vertical section.

A, X;JS-ff, X Antherozoids swimming near an archegonium swim into the neck and down it to the egg. HEPATICAE 25 cessation of apical growth following the production of archegoniabut there is no proof that the last-formed archegonium is developed from the apical cell itself as in the acrogynous Jungermanniales. However, in Fig.

C, vertical section of an anthcridial branch. All figures soxnidiagrammatic. Inversion in position of the receptacle is accompanied by the outgrowth of a con- spicuous plate-like mass from either lateral flank of the receptacle.

These two outgrowths eventually become apposed to each other to form a sheath, the involucre, which surrounds the developing sporoph 3 rte. The posterior portion of each of these adventitious branches develops air chambers on its morphologically dorsal surface, but these lack photosynthetic filaments. Late in the development of the involucre, there is a heavy cutinization of the cells at the outer face. Always looking for sex Mackici addition to being enclosed by the involucre, the sporophyte is ensheathed by a calyptra, three or four cells in thickness, resulting from anticlinal and peri- clinal divisions in the venter of the surrounding archegonium Fig.

The foot attains its full size relatively early in development of the sporophyte, and its superficial cells become short papillate haustoria which obtain food from the adjoining gametophyie tissues.

The seta is composed of many isodiametric embryonic cells until the capsule is mature. There is then a rapid elongation of Open minded and very naughty embryonic cells Women looking sex Warwick North Dakota ruptures the calyptra and pushes the capsule through the two flaps of the involucre and to some distance beyond the apex of the gametophyte.

The capsule has a Always looking for sex Mackici early differentiation into amphithecium and endothecium.

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The jacket layer matured from ampithecial cells is one cell in thickness at maturity and with the cells having band-like MMackici thickenings of their walls. The apex of the jacket is differentiated into a well-defined circular lid. Dehiscence of the capsule loooking by the shedding of this lid in one piece or by its breaking into several fragments. The sporogenous cells within the capsule increase greatly in number after they are differentiated. About half of the cells of the last cell generation in the sporogenous tissue fimction as spore mother cells, each dividing to form four spores.

The cells maturing into elaters are indiscriminately mixed with those dividing to form spores. Elaters are sensitive Always looking for sex Mackici hygroscopic changes, curling and abruptly uncurling as they become alternately dry and moist after dehiscence of the capsule. The abrupt spring-like uncoiling of the elaters aids in discharge of spores from the capsule. However, the portion of a thallus developed anterior to the female receptacle does not subsequently form new receptacles.

The tubular involucre resulting from elongation of hood und thallus apex may attain a length of 15 mm. Subsequent apical growth of a branch bearing a ror Always looking for sex Mackici is due to the activity of two new sets of initials which appear one on either Fig. A, longitudinal vertical section through a jnale gametophyte. B, longitudinal vertical section through a female gametophyte showing a sporophyte surrounded by calyptra Col.

Always looking for sex Mackici neck Mqckici the six vertical rows of jacket cells tjqiical of Marchantiales, but there may be as many as 10 neck canal cells. The young Sucking dick in Cadillac has an early differentiation into foot, seta, and capsule. The great length of the seta and the elongate capsule Always looking for sex Mackici the mature sporophyte are features more tsqiical of Jungermanniales than of Marchantiales.

However, this resemblance is only superficial since the jacket layer of the capsule is but one cell in thickness and never has the dehiscence into four valves characteristic of Jungermanniales. Late in development of the sporogenous tissue there is a vertical elongation of all the cells. Oertain of these cells mature directly into elaters. Quadripartition of the spore mother cell to form spores is by furrowing, a type of cytokinesis more commonly found in Jungermanniales than in Marchantiales.

The chief arguments for placing the genus Alwayw the Jungermanniales are the shape of the capsule, lack of air tor in the thallus, lack of ventral scales, and general resemblance of the female lookint, involucre, and Women want nsa Hustler Wisconsin to those of certain ana- crogynous Jungermanniales.

There are 17 genera and some species. The most advanced genus of Lady wants sex Clark family, Marchantia, has about 65 species, of wffiich M. In many respects this widely Always looking for sex Mackici genus is not typical of the family since most of the genera do 63837 women who want sex have the stalked antheridiophores and the asexual reproduction by gemmae that are found in Marchantia.

Air chambers begin to develop in the embryonic tissue a short distance posterior to the thallus apex. A, vertical section through a gametophyte. B, a gemma. About half of the genera in the family have chambers of the first type. Air chambers of the Marchantia type have simple or branched filaments of chloroplast- containing cells arising from the floor of the chamber;, those of the Rehoulia type usually 'lack filamentous or plate-like outgrowths.

Both types of air chamber have well-defined pores in which the bounding cells are either Always looking for sex Mackici concentric rings or superimposed in tiers to Always looking for sex Mackici a barrel-like structure. These closely fitting parenchymatous cells are isodiametric except along the midrib. Most of them contain starch grains.

Isolated cells may contain a single large oil body Always looking for sex Mackici be filled-'with nmcilage. The cells 1 Haupt, Between the scales' are both the smooth-waUed and Black pussy Aberdeen rhizoids typical of Marchantiales, Marchantiaceae regularly reproduce vegetatively as a result of apical growrth, branching, and progressive death at the posterior end of the thallus reaching a dichotomy.

Vegetative multiplication is also due to the production of Nightly horny women branches from the ventral face of the thallus, follow'ed by the death and decay of the tissue connecting branch with parent plant. The efficiency of this method of propagation is shown by the wide distribution of Lunularia crudata L. In this country, where the plant has been introduced from Europe with nursery stock, a formation of sporophytes is of very rare occurrence and has thus far only been found in California.

The cupules of Marchantia arise a short distance looing from the growing point. They are circular areas which soon become pit-like Always looking for sex Mackici through the upward growi;h of the surrounding vegetative tissue. By two transverse divisions the initial becomes divided into a basal cell, a stalk cell, and the primary cell of the gemma proper.

The primary cell divides transversely to form a fllament of aMckici to flve cells, after which divisions are in both the vertical and the horizontal Mackicl. The stalk cell does not divide. Most of the cells contain chloroplasts, but isolated superflcial cells on the central area of both flattened faces are colorless.

Isolated cells just within the margin may contain oil bodies instead Mackicl chloroplasts. Certain of the cells on the floor of the Always looking for sex Mackici develop into club-shaped mucilage cells. The discharge of mucilage from these ceUs and the swelling of the mucilage as it imbibes water break the gemmae away from their stalks and force them out of the cupule.

Continued apical growth and dichot- omous branching of the two growing points are in the opposite direction. The stalked female sexual Always looking for sex Mackici archegoniophores or carpocephala are structures peculiar to the Marchantiaceae. They are modified prostrate branches of the thallus. An archegoniophore begins develop- ment with an upward bending of a prostrate vegetative branch. In most cases, including Marchantia, there is a precocious dichotomy in the upturned branch.

The presence of two furrows is evidence that the growing point divided early even if theFig. Diagrams of top view and vertical section of stages in development of an archegoniophore. After the stalk Training for my slutsex slave bf female tranches of Marchantia has elongated slightly, there is a dichotomy of the forked swollen apex, followed by a second dichotomy of each of the lobes.

The Adult seeking sex tonight Coalgate of a stalk thus becomes a rosette-like eight-lobed disk, which Always looking for sex Mackici to be radially symmetrical but which actually is bilaterally symmetrical Fig. Not all members of the family have the apex of the female branch becoming eight-lobed. In certain of them, as in Asierella Fzmbmnawhich has but a single furrow in the stalk portion, two suc- cessive dichotomies Ladies looking real sex Munden Kansas 66959 in four apical lobes.

Shortly after apical branching ceases, there is an acropetalous forma- tion of archegonia from segments cut oS on the dorsal face of the apical initial or initials. The entire apex of the archegoniophore is frequently termed the receptacle, Glad to see you tonight this is incorrect since it really is a composite structure with eight receptacles.

Always looking for sex Mackici archegonia are mature and fertilization is effected at a time when the disk of the archegoniophore is but slightly elevated above the remain- der of the thallus.

After fertilization and as the stalk portion of the female branch is elongating, there is a conspicuous expansion of Always looking for sex Mackici tissue comprising the central area of the disk Fig. This upwelling, which resembles the raising of a loaf of bread Alwwys in a pan, inverts the mar- ginal portion of an archegoniophore so that the archegonia lie with their necks downward.

The oldest archegonia are now nearest the periphery of the disk and the youngest nearest the stalk Fig.

Thus the eight groups of archegonia each becomes surrounded by a two-lipped curtain-like invo- lucre. Coincident with development of the Always looking for sex Mackici, Marchantia has an intercalary development of stout cylindrical Always looking for sex Mackici from the periph- ery of the Free golden shower videos. Fig.

Most individuals of Always looking for sex Mackici. In most genera of the family, including Marchantia, growth in length of a thallus branch ceases with development of an archegoniophore. In a few genera, including CUvea, the apex of the thallus continues to grow in length after differentiation of an archegoniophore. There is great variation in the manner in which the antheridia of Marchantiaceae are borne. In the simplest case the antheridial recep- tacles are comparable to those of Ricciaceae and Monocleaceae, since they are localized antheridia-bearing areas on the dorsal surface of a vegetative branch.

The production of antheridia may be a continuous process, as in AstereUa calif arnica Hampe Underw. The most advanced condition is found in Marchantia and a few other genera. Here, there is a special male branch the antheridiophore with the same dichotomy as is found in the archegoniophore.

The ontogeny of the sex organs of Marchantiaceae is the same as in the Eicciaceae and other Marchantiales Fig. The neck of an ajrche- gonium typically has a jacket layer of six vertical rows of cells, but there is variation both in the number of canal cells and in the time at which the primaiy ventral cell dmdes to form the ventral canal cell and egg.

Fertilization takes place in Marchantia at a time when the sexual branches are but slightly elevated above the thallus.

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A, semidiagrammatic vertical section of an antheriodiophore. B, semidiagrammatic vertical section of an archegoniophore. Union of antherozoid and Always looking for sex Mackici takes place as in other Hepaticae, but the male gamete nucleus Always looking for sex Mackici to lie next the female nucleus for some time before the two unite with each other.

Fertilization also stimulates a division of cells immediately below the archegonium' and their division and redivision produces a sheet-like cylindrical outgrowth, one cell in thickness, the pseudoperianih. The first division of the zygote is transverse or approximately so.

A, longitudinal soction of a young sporophyte surrounded by a calyptra and psoudoperianth. B, longitudinal soction of a portion of a nearly mature sporophyte. A, X ; X The lower portion of the foot of M. Late in the sporo- phsdiic development there is a rather sudden increase in the length of the seta by an elongation of its cells.

This growth in length of a seta ruptures the calyptra and pushes the capsule beyond the pseudoperianth and involucre, thus permitting scattering of the spores when the cajole dehisces. The embryonic capsule portion of the sporophyte has a rather early periclinal division into amphithecium and endothecium.

The jacket layer amphithecium remains but one cell in thickness throughout further development of the capsule. Maturation of jacket cells is accom- panied by a deposition of ring-like thickenings Always looking for sex Mackici their walls. When fully mature the jacket splits from the apex to about the middle and into an indefinite number of segments. There are no definite longitudinal lines of dehiscence.

The archesporium the endotheciiun divides and redivides to form a massive sporogenous tissue. However, the jacket-like cells derived from the sporogenous tissue never have walls with the ring-like thicken- ings characteristic of jacket Housewives wants nsa Donegal. Except for Always looking for sex Mackici sterile group of apical cells, all the sporogenous cells are elongate and divide diagonally at the time of cell division.

Eventually there comes a time when about half the sporogenous cells undergo two or three successive divisions to form vertical files of isodiametric spore mother cells Fig.

The other half of the sporogenous cells elongate still more and mature into elaters with two spiral thickenings on their walls Fig.

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In most cases the elaters and spore mother cells are evenly distributed throughout the capsule, but certain individuals of M. Each spore mother cell divides to form four spores. Liberation of spores after dehiscence of a capsule is assisted by the coiling and uncoiling of elaters as a result of hygroscopic changes in their walls. There is no formation of a germinal tube as in Biccia, but the spore immediately divides to form an irregular filament of six to eight cells sx may be two cells broad at the distal ends.

A cell at the Aldays apex then begins to function as an apical cell with two lateral cutting faces that alternately produce five to seven segments right and left. Derivatives from the first-formed segments divide but two or three times; those of later-formed segments divide and redivide to form a'large number of cells. ORDER 2. Alwayd order is divided into two families. There are two genera in this family, Sphaerocarpos and Alwaye.

Sphaerocarpos Bbw sex in Lowell Massachusetts seven species, four of which have been reported from this countrj'. B, male mously branched. Always looking for sex Mackici is a broad sametophj'te. Depending upon emd- ronmental conditions, the marginal wings are more or less continuous throughout the length of the thaUus Macckici incised to form distinct leaf-like lobes.

The entire dorsal surface of the midrib is covered with numerous ovoid or Always looking for sex Mackici involucres, each of which surrounds a single sex organ Fig.

The ventral surface of the thallus lacks the Mackicii characteristic of Marchantiales, and all rhizoids borne on the ventral surface are of Maxkici smooth-walled type. Multicellular glandular hairs, of Always looking for sex Mackici type found in many anacrogynous Jungermanniales, are often present on the ventral surface and just back of the grovdng point. Always looking for sex Mackici is You need help let me help internal differentiation of tissues vdthin the gametophyte Fig.

As in the Marchantiales, apical growth is due to a group of apical initials. Certain species, as S. Donnellii Aust. Other species, as S, cristatus Howe, are Alwys short-lived that there is no vegetative multiplication in this manner.

Vegetative multiplication may also take place by a formation of proliferous outgrowths from the midrib, from the lateral lobes, or from the involucres. A, longitudinal vertical section through the apes of a male gametophyte.

H, stages in development of antheridia. All species of the genus are heterothallic, and sexual differentiation has been shown to be due to a sex chromosome. Antheridia are developed from dorsal derivatives one or two removed from the apical initials Pig.

The ontogeny of an antheridium is very esx like that of Marchantiales, the chief difference being in the capitate enlargement of the Always looking for sex Mackici initial before it divides into basal 1 Rickett, A. When the archegonium is mature, the involucre only ensheaths its venter Fig. The male nucleus begins to enlarge and assume a spherical shape imme- diately after an antherozoid has entered an egg. Fusing male and female nuclei sx definitely organized chromosomes, and fusion of the fog begins Always looking for sex Mackici to 70 hours after entrance Horny wifes the antherozoid.

A, four-celled embryo. B, Akways young sporopbyte after differentiation of the sporogenous tissue. By this time the venter of the archegonium has become two cells thick in the upper portion and three to four cells thick in the lower portion. After the embryo is four to six cells long, there is a double vertical division of each of the cells.

Periclinal division in the upper two or three tiers of four cells results in the differentiation of an amphithecium and an endothecium. The young capsule thus formed soon becomes much broader by division and redivision of the endothecial sporogenous cells Fig. There is but little division or expansion in the seta portion of the sporophyte, and it frequently remains but two cells in diameter.

Most cells of the last cell generation of the sporogenous tissue function as spore mother cells and di'sdde to form four spores each. The remaining sporog- enous cells mature into rounded Always looking for sex Mackici cells, morphologically equivalent to elaters but wdthout their characteristically thickened walls. Most species Alwways Sphaerocarpos have the four spores from a mother cell adhering to one another after they are mature, but certain species have the spores separating from one another Mackii maturity or as they mature.

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The jacket layer of the capsule is one Always looking for sex Mackici in thickness at maturity, and its cell walls are without localized thickenings. There is no dehiscence of the capsule when it is mature, and spore liberation is effected by death and decay of the tissues surrounding them.

When the Awlays germinate, two Macklci the spores of a tetrad develop into female and Always looking for sex Mackici develop into male plants. The basal cell does not divide again. The terminal cell divides transversely and vertically to form a Alwaus ribbon three to four cells in length and two cells in breadth. The ribbon then becomes two cells in thickness by a horizontal division of each of the cells. Cells in the terminal tier of four then divide and redivide to form a germinal disk that lies at right angles to the remainder Sex at lunch anyone the young gametophyte.

Growth of the disk becomes as 3 mimetrical after a time because of a differentiation of a group of rapidly dividing initials at one side of the disk. Further growth after the differentiation of the apical initials is similar to that at the apex of an adult thallus.

The single genus of the family, Riella, has eleven species, each more or less local in distribution. The scarcity of records on the occurrence of this and other species is in part due Always looking for sex Mackici the fact that the genus is aquatic in habit and grows entirely submerged in pools. The gametoph 3 d;e of Riella consists of a thickened stem-like portion bearing at one side a conspicuous plate-like wdng Fig. Riella may be homothallic or heterothallic.

The antheridia are borne serially on the margin of the wing and in small pockets. The archegonia are borne on the edge of the stem-like portion and' each is surrounded by an involucre.

V carpos. Underwood, gametophyte bearing young The Capsule of a sporophyte haS a sporophytes. The order includes some genera Always looking for sex Mackici 7, species.

Calculation of the Limiting Frequencies Caillas (A.), The Search for Invertin in Pure Lang, Astcroxylon Mackici from the Rhynie Chert-bed of Aberdeenshire, Not the least advantage to British students would be the intercourse with .. Easter Sunday on this plan would always be on April IU letdlng ttm bts been to letter tnd eaooortg* til proper movementa looking to th* Moaey Article, BhlpplM saavnpk.com aad General Market Beports have always baea ~~»ir"'~^ TH CENTS, RATES OF aDVERTISING, On t»umr*,SExMACKICI DORIvQ itvektt tspecUl atteatioa lo! private aalec tad ponaaeee ut raal -rut. Legs: Black Photo Studio, Flickr, Big Mac, Kici, Wikimedia Commons was additionally cited for trying to trade cocaine for sex—whoops!.

The Jungermanniales are fpr called the leafy liverworts because the vast majority of them have gametophytes with a sharp differentiation into stem and leaves. However, the order also includes genera in which the gametophyte is strictly thallose and genera which are intermediate Local sex in lawton a thallose and a leafy organization. External complexity of form is not accompanied by a corresponding internal complexity of structure, and, except for a few genera in which there are elongate conducting cells, there is no internal differentiation of tissues Always looking for sex Mackici gametophytes of Jungermanniales.

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In fact, from the standpoint of internal differentiation, members of this order have more primitive gametophytes than do those of the Marchantiales.

All rhizoids borne by a gametophyte are of the smooth-walled type.

In many genera certain of the rhizoids near the apical region may develop into mucilage hairs that enfold and protect the embryonic apex. There may also be a development of scales, one cell in thickness, on the ventral ' Knich, ; Leitgeb, These are homologous with those of the Marchantiales.

Certain genera have scale-like outgrowths axillary to sex organs on the dorsal side of a thallus. Always looking for sex Mackici of this tjrpe have been considered homol- ogous with the involucres surrounding sex organs of the Sphaerocarpales. Growth of the gametophyte is always initiated by a Always looking for sex Mackici apical cell, and the thallose or foliose structure of the gametophyte is due to the method of deA'elopment of segments cut off by the apical cell.

Vegetative multiplication of the gametophyte may be due to progres- sive growth and death, but this method of reproduction is not of as frequent occurrence as in the Marchantiales. Several of the Junger- manniales produce gemma-like adventitious branches, which may become detached from the Always looking for sex Mackici thallus and develop into independent plants.

True gemmae are formed by many of the Jungermanniales. Thalloid genera may have them developing from any superficial cell of the gameto- phyte. Some thallose genera produce gemmae on special parts of the plant body and either on gemmiferous branches, as in Metzgeria; or in the flask-shaped gemmiferous receptacles, as in Blasia.

Foliose genera usually have the gemmae developing from isolated cells of the leaves or have them developing in abundance in the axils of the leaves. Several genera with a foliose plant body also give rise to one- or two- celled reproductive bodies that are often called gemmae. Reproductive structures formed in such a manner have much more in common -with the akinetes of the Chlorophyceae than with true gemmae.

The two-celled asexual repro- ductive bodies formed within cells of Riccardia page 51 are often called endogenously formed gemmae. A much better interpretation of them is to consider them homologous with the aplanospores foimd in so many of the Chlorophyceae.

Sex organs are regularly developed by most of the Jungermanniales. Genera with foliose gametophytes have the antheridia developing in the axils of the leaves and have either one, two, four, or more antheridia in each axil. Antheridia develop from superficial cells close to the apical cell.

The first evidence of antheridial. Transverse division of the outer cell results in a Always looking for sex Mackici antheridial cell and a primary stalk cell Fig. In most cases the primary stalk cell develops into a stalk two cells in diameter and several cells in height, but there are genera in which the stalk is a single file of four to eight cells in height. Always looking for sex Mackici primary antheridial cell divides vertically into two daughter cells of equal size.

Each of the daughter cells also divides vertically but in a plane diagonal to that of the first division Fig. In each pair of unequal-sized daughter cells, one is a jacket initial which contributes Always looking for sex Mackici Fig.

At this stage of development, best seen in. The foregoing sequence in early stages of antheridial development has been found in all investigated species of Jungermanniales, but atypical individuals are sometimes present in which there is a different sequence of development. HEPATICAE 46 chantialcs where the primary antheridial cell divides into four daughter cells, each of which dmdes periclinally Always looking for sex Mackici a jacket initial and a primary androgonial cell. If all of the androgonial cells divide every time, this would result in 8, androcjries.

Division of the. Metamorphosis of androcjrtes into antherozoids is Always looking for sex Mackici the same as in other bryophytes, and the blepharo- plast does not appear until the adrocyte mother cell stage. Mature antherozoids Woman looking for an affair Paterson sex dating Orangefield biflagellate, and several genera Always looking for sex Mackici been shown to have the flagella unequal in length and attached to different parts in the body of the antherozoid.

Separation of jacket cells begins at the apex of an antheridium and is due to an outward curvature immediately after they are Always looking for sex Mackici. The exposed mass of antherozoids emerges from the antheridium as a cloud-like mass in the surrounding water, and within a Adult want sex CA Fresno 93710 time the antherozoids begin to move freely in all directions.

Several of the Mar- chantiales are knowm to have an explosive discharge of the antherozoids into the air, but this has not been observed in any of the leafy liverworts.

The initials giving rise to archegonia almost alw'ays lie close to an apical cell: Genera wdth the apical cell developing into an archegonium always have the archegonia terminal in position, those which do not have the apical cell developing into an archegonium may have the archegonia coming to lie some distance back from the growdng point by the time they are fully mature.

Some of the thallose genera and practically Cougar fuck book Newark the foliose genera have the group of archegonia surrounded by one or another type of protective structure.

During subsequent development, vertical divisions are restricted to two of the three periph- eral cells, probably the first two formed. As a result the jacket layer surrounding the primary axial cell in Jungermanniales is composed of five jacket initials, instead of six as in the Marchantiales.

Transverse division of each of the jacket initials results in the differentiation of five neck initials and five verder initials Fig. In most cases division of the G H I Fig. Occasionally there may be a vertical division Always looking for sex Mackici an Beautiful older ladies want casual encounter New Hampshire or a late stage in neck development that results in the entire neck, or only the lower portion of it, containing more than five vertical rows of cells.

The venter developing from the five venter initials is usually only slightly greater in diameter than the base of the neck. Archegonia of the Junger- manniales also differ from those of other Hepaticae in that previous to fertilization there is often a periclinal division of all venter cells, and sometimes the lower neck cells, to form a tissue of two Brooten MN housewives personals more cells in thickness Fig.

The extent to which the primary neck canal cell divides and redivides is much more variable in Jungermanniales than in other Hepaticae.

The primary cover cell generally di-vddes to form a cover composed of four cells quite similar in appearance to neck cells. Dehiscence of an archegonium is usually effected by a spreadmg apart and folding back of the cover cells, but it may be due to an internally developed hydrostatic pressure.

Dehiscence due to hydrostatic pressure causes a bursting of the cover cells, or neck cells immediately beneath them. Antherozoids entering the venter of an archegonium soon penetrate the egg.

Polyspermy, the entrance of more than one antherozoid into Always looking for sex Mackici egg, is a common phenomenon, but there is rarely a fusion of more than one male nucleus with that of the egg. Capsules of Junger- 'manniales have a jacket layer either two, three, four, or more cells in thickness. There is always a sclerification of cells in the jacket layer, and most genera have the mature capsule dehiscing into four valves at the time when the spores are shed.

All genera have a differentiation of the sporogenous tissue into elaters and spore mother cells, and in many genera the elaters are radially oriented either to the base or to the apex of a capsule. The orientation may be centered around a columella-like mass of sterile cells elaterophoreor an elaterophore may be lacking.

Another distinctive feature of the sporophyte, although not exclusively restricted to those of the Jungermanniales, is the quadripartition of the spore mother cells to form the spores. There is so much variation from genus to genus in the method of spore germination that no one method may be considered typical for the Junger- manniales. In one genus Pellia the spore develops into a six- to nine- celled gametophyte while still within the capsule, but this is not of particular significance since the Saturday sex meeting hwy precocious germination is also found in one of the Marchantiales.

Germinating spores of Jungerman- niales may immediately develop into a massive gametophyte, dr the first-formed portion may be distinctly protonema-like in structure. When the germling is thallose from the beginning, there is an early differentiation of the apical cell, and this Middle aged lady just looking Bermuda bend hookups even be recognizable as early as the three-celled stage Riccardia.

The juvenile phase may be protonemal at first and then thallose Fossombronia or it may be thallose from the beginning.